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Growing truffles? What you need to know.

Ah, the question that keeps finding its way to us: "How easy is it to grow truffles in Australia?" or the classic, "Years ago we planted some 'truffle trees', can Frank swing by to check if we've got truffles under our trees?" Now, we'll be honest - we aren't truffle plantation gurus, but fear not! In this post we dip our toes into the things you should consider if you're daydreaming about starting your own truffiere, whether it's for fun or to make a pretty penny.


We promise not to get too bogged down in technical jargon, but we'll sprinkle some helpful links at the end for the brave souls who want a deep dive.


The focus of this post will be setting up a truffiere on the east coast of Australia - where truffle dreams might just become a reality! Did you know there is a truffle producing truffiere in Queensland?


truffiere from above
Fish River Truffles truffiere

Selecting the Ideal Truffle-Growing Site

To make your truffiere flourish, several crucial factors come into play when choosing the perfect site.


Climate

Picture this: gourmet or table truffles happily thriving in their natural habitat around south and western Europe - think France, Italy, Spain, and parts of the former Yugoslavia. So, your chosen site should boast a Mediterranean-like climate, featuring warm summers and mild to cold winters. Aim for a yearly temperature range between 30°C to -3°C and rainfall reaching up to 1000mm to ensure your truffiere's success. Don't forget about summer rain, a vital element to keep your soil moist and those precious truffle spores alive. And oh, here's a heads-up: watch out for soil temperature! As temperatures are on the rise, truffle spores start to wither when the soil exceeds 26°C. So, keep an eye out for any heavy temperature spikes that might jeopardize your production.


Optimizing Soil Conditions for growing truffles

Soil quality will directly influence the quality of your truffle production. Therefore, it's essential to pay attention to your soil's characteristics for optimal results. A well-draining and friable soil structure is key, ranging from sandy to clay loam with a clay content of 10-30%. These soil types have shown the most promising outcomes.


Now, let's talk pH, especially in the Australian context. Our soils tend to be more acidic compared to those in Europe. To counter this, you'll need to add lime to your truffiere. Aim for an overall pH level between 7.5 to 7.9 to create the ideal environment for truffle cultivation.


Part of your soil preparation should include a comprehensive soil test. This will provide crucial information about the availability of micro and macro nutrients for your trees and truffles. Generally, an excess of plant nutrients in the soil is not desirable. However, if your soil is deficient in any important nutrients for truffle production, their addition can become part of your fertilization regimen later on.


Considerations for Spacing and Slope

Now, here's a curious revelation: light plays a significant role in truffle production, despite truffles growing underground. While these intricate details deserve another discussion, extensive research supports this finding. As a result, tree spacing and slope become vital considerations.


In our truffiere, we've oriented it towards the east, strategically aligning the trees to maximize the amount of available light as the sun traverses the sky. Throughout the years, various spacing sizes have been experimented with, considering the larger trees, such as oaks, requiring more space. For smaller trees like hazels, a 3x5m grid spacing works well, while oaks may need as much as a 6x6m grid spacing. This careful planning ensures optimal light exposure for your truffiere and enhances truffle production.


Securing Your Truffiere from Truffle-Loving Critters

In the land Down Under, we have our fair share of marsupials that just can't resist truffles! If you find yourself living in an area where the Long-Footed Potoroo (potorous longipes), Gilbert’s Potoroo (potorous gilbertii), or the Eastern Bettong (bettongia gaimardi) roam, you will need a fence to protect your precious truffiere. And hey, that's not all – if wild pigs are common visitors in your area, you'll need an extra sturdy, heavy-duty fence that requires ongoing maintenance to keep those pesky diggers at bay. Let's not forget that kangaroos and rabbits can also be a fence's worst enemies, so it's all the more reason to make sure your fencing game is top-notch. With the right measures in place, you'll be safeguarding your truffles from these truffle-loving critters in no time!


Which Truffle Will You Grow?

With careful planning and a well-designed truffiere, you could embark on a year-round truffle hunting adventure, lasting up to 8 months! Thanks to the advancements in mycology (the study of fungi), cultivating the most sought-after table truffles has become a reality. While the legendary Italian white Alba truffle might not be commercially available just yet, you can still indulge in 8 months of truffle bliss by incorporating the Tuber melanosporum (the black winter truffle), Tuber aestivum (burgundy or summer truffle), and Tuber borchii (the biancetto or Italian whitish truffle) in your truffiere. Picture a delightful combination of Oaks (English or French), hazelnuts, and pine trees making up your truffle haven.

tuber melanosporum truffle
The Australian black winter truffle (tuber melanosporum)
Bianchetto truffle
Bianchetto truffle (Tuber borchii)

Tuber aestivum
The summer truffle (tuber aestivum)

Now, here's a crucial aspect to remember: for truffles to grow beneath your trees, they need to be specially inoculated with the spores of the truffle variety you're aiming for. Unlike in Europe, where it seems "where there is an oak, there is a truffle," in Australia, you'll need to get inoculated seedlings from a supplier who specialises in providing truffle-certified seedlings. This step cannot be emphasized enough. In the past, particularly in Europe, there have been stories of farmers purchasing trees, only to realise after years of waiting, that their trees lacked any viable truffle spores. And yep, the supplier was nowhere to be found.


To avoid such setbacks, we've included a link to a reputable supplier that we personally use below.


Managing Pests and Diseases

Congratulations on planting all those lovely seedlings! Now, the challenge lies in keeping them thriving. Luckily, the Western Australian government has funded and produced a comprehensive pest and disease guide to lend a helping hand. This valuable resource not only highlights potential dangers to your trees but also provides detailed information on threats that may target your precious truffles. Recognizing these risks early on will be vital for the success of your truffiere.


Again, links to this material is below.


Harvesting Your Truffles

When it comes to truffle hunting, most truffieres nowadays employ the keen noses of dogs. Our four-legged friends are easy to train and make wonderful companions during the off-season. While pigs can also be used, they require considerable training and become challenging to manage once they reach a certain size. We've written extensively about using dogs in truffieres the link to which you will find below.


Seek Professional Advice

Here's a crucial piece of advice: if you're contemplating setting up a truffiere, it's highly recommended you seek professional guidance and consider joining the industry peak body. Australia's truffle industry is well-established, offering various consultants who can provide you with expert advice tailored to your needs.


Joining the Australian Truffle Industry Association (ATIA) presents an excellent opportunity to immerse yourself in all things truffles. Their annual conference will keep you updated on best practices and serve as an excellent networking platform, connecting you with members from across the entire truffle supply chain.


Truffle growing links

TruffleGrowing.com (Plantation consultants)

Growing truffles. (ATIA website page on establishing a truffiere)

A European truffle growing guru. (His book is the bible of truffle growing)


And there you have it. If you found this post useful, please do give us a like. If you think a friend would like to have a read, please do share it.


Ciao for now.

Carmine

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